Dating e c atkins saws
In clearing the crowded gaols, in producing raw materials and food for the city-dwellers of the old land, they played a role of increasing importance in the grand speculation of industrialism—that experiment on which the British people have staked their capital, their mighty energy, their very life-blood.
Australia emerged from the degradation of convictism by taking the place for which Spain had proved inadequate in the divided tasks of growing and manufacturing wool, both formerly discharged by Britain herself.
Production Notes: The Australian (1948) edition of this book has been scanned and converted to text, the only change to which here has been that superscripted footnotes at the bottom of the page have been transformed into bracketed notes defined by asterisks and placed at the end of the relevant paragraph. Eggleston, but it is fitting that they should be preceded by an outline of the private activity which they have been ostensibly designed to foster.
following account of Australian economic development attempts, to keep in the forefront the private activities by which British settlers in Australia have transformed a prison-yard and hunting-ground of savages into a productive annexe to Europe and Asia, proud of using its labour-saving methods as means to general well-being. Studies of government expenditure on development are being made, notably in the work of the Hon. The scene of the new beginning here studied was a distant and at first despised part of the dowry of that fairest mistress "Trade", for whom Britain, Holland and France long fought.
"The world's uncultivated areas are mainly wheat-producing land." Geographically, with her wheat lands near the coast, Australia is better situated to supply an industrialized Asia with foodstuffs than are the inland prairies of America or the steppes of Russia. Thus the harbour formed by their submergence had escaped silt. But the plain behind lacked a fit scene for immediate agriculture, the hard labour to which the convicts brought by the First Fleet had been condemned; and it was walled off from the rest of the Continent by the Blue Mountain cliffs. Australia, Physiographic and Economic.] The only denizens of the virgin land were primitive hunting tribes who, by restriction of their numbers and by elaborate taboos, had adjusted their hunting to the supply of game.
On active service along Australia's lines of communication with Britain, they have felt the heave of big events. But fighting the Boers on the veldt was another business; and Australians came home from it to their federated Commonwealth aware that strong nations were coveting the resources of lands under the British flag.The sense of a permanent and secure world was shaken. Keynes, "the most interesting question in the world (of those, at least, to which time will bring us an answer)" was "whether, after a short interval of recovery, material progress would be resumed, or whether, on the other hand, the magnificent episode of the nineteenth century was over." At first it seemed that a prosperity greater than that of pre-war times had come.During the campaigns of 1915 to 1918, in numbers as great as the Commonwealth could muster and partly equip—numbers whose going heavily checked the work of farms, wharves and mines—Australians helped other Britons and their Allies to meet the armed challenge. Home and external markets moved from strength to strength, with little faltering even in 1920-21 when Britain plunged into the long depression that grips her still.The realists in opposition applauded each tariff and marketing scheme, but, mistrusting American methods with labour, made haste, by control of state-administrations and by pleas before wage-fixing tribunals, to distribute income more favourably for their supporters.Australia certainly has need of greater self-reliance, but she is not and cannot be another United States of America, In place of the Mississippi Valley and Middle West she has Lake Eyre and an arid, almost uninhabited, central region.
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The coalition of parties in political power during the post-war decade piled tariff upon tariff in favour of local secondary industries, and sponsored crude plans to exploit the Australian market in favour of struggling export industries.